Revista Chilena de Neuropsicología
Universidad del Desarrollo
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Número 2 > Diciembre 2011

La memoria de trabajo como elemento diferencial para el Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad

Sara San-Nicolás, Ioseba Iraurgi, Ana-Berta Jara, Miriam Azpiri, Maite Urizar
Palabras Claves:
trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad, TDAH, infancia, memoria de trabajo, funciones ejecutivas
Keywords:
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD, childhood, executive functions, working memory, differential diagnosis

Resumen

Introducción: El creciente número de niños derivados a consultas especializadas bajo sospecha de presentar un Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) nos lleva buscar características comunes a todos ellos que ayuden a comprender esta sobredemanda. Objetivos: Analizar las diferencias y semejanzas en Memoria de Trabajo (MT), por ser esta la función ejecutiva más vulnerable a la distracción. Método: Se analizó una muestra de 48 niños y niñas derivados desde pediatría por presunto TDAH. Se midió el Cociente Intelectual (CI) y la MT. Resultados: El subtipo combinado era el que mostraba puntuaciones más bajas. Al margen de los objetivos propuestos, se encontraron diferencias significativas en el área de Comprensión Verbal. Discusión: Se aprecian diferencias relevantes entre los subtipos de TDAH que plantean la posibilidad de que ambos subtipos correspondan a nosologías diferentes.

Abstract

Introduction: The increasing number of children referred to Children and Adolescents Psychiatric Services under a suspect of showing an ADHD and the low proportion in which this diagnosis is confirmed, leads us to look for common characteristics in them all that help to find the cause of this over-demand. Objectives: To analyze the differences and similarities in Working Memory (WM) since it is the more vulnerable to distraction executive function and the one that affects the more to learning ability. Method: A clinical sample of 48 children (81.3%, males) with ages between six and 12, derived from Pediatrics under a supposed ADHD. Intelli-gence Quotient (IQ) and WM in both verbal and visuo-spatial modalities were measured. Results: The were not found statistically significant differences in WM between the diverse diagnostic groups and ADHD group, although combined subtype showed the lowest outcomes in both verbal and visuo-spatial modalities of these tasks. Besides the objectives, there were found significant differences in Verbal Comprehension area (VC), being this index higher in case of ADHD group. Discussion: There were not found specific difficulties in WM between children diagnosed as ADHD regarding those described as "other disorders", though relevant differences in other areas are noticeable between ADHD subtypes. This fact suggests the possibility of considering both subtypes as independent nosologies. The convenience of further investigation to that respect through more controlled methodology is proposed.